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Welcome to CyCLOPS

Cyprus Continuously Operating Natural Hazards Monitoring & Prevention System


The Largest Scientific Permanent GNSS CORS & SAR Corner Reflector Network in Cyprus

Project Partners

Project Supporters


CyCLOPS: A Strategic Research Infrastructure Unit for Geohazards Monitoring in Cyprus and the Southeastern Mediterranean Region

The Cyprus Continuously Operating Natural Hazards Monitoring and Prevention System (RIF/INFRASTRUCTURES/1216/0050), abbreviated CyCLOPS, was co-financed by the European Union Regional Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation. The main objective of the project was the establishment of a novel Strategic Research Infrastructure Unit for monitoring Solid Earth processes and Geohazards in Cyprus and the broader EMENA region. CyCLOPS has deployed permanent co-located multi-sensor configurations (Tier-1/2 GPS/GNSS reference stations, SAR Corner Reflectors, weather stations, and tiltmeters) throughout Cyprus to promote geohazard monitoring, critical infrastructure resilience, and form the National Geodetic ans Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) backbone.

CyCLOPS is comprised of two components; (a) the array of sensors, called the Multiparametric Network (MPN), and (b) the Operations Center (OC).

The MPN consists of the permanent (PS) and the mobile (MS) segments.

The Permanent Segment (PS)

The permanent segment currently numbers six (6) sites, where permanent GNSS reference stations (CORS) co-locate with a pair of calibration-grade SAR Corner Reflectors (CR) in ascending and descending orientation, yielding 50% more data for processing. The CyCLOPS GNSS reference stations include state-of-the-art receivers (Trimble® Alloy) coupled with individually calibrated choke ring antennas (Trimble® GNSS Ti-v2 Choke Ring). At each site, the integrated configuration (GNSS+SAR) is further co-located with a high-precision weather station (Vaisala PTU307) and a digital tiltmeter (Jewell D-711-A-S). Furthermore, in most cases, there is additional co-location with seismographs of the national seismological network yielding in essence supersites for geophysical and geodynamic monitoring.

GNSS enables the determination of deformation at the mm level. To achieve this accuracy, our stations had to be aligned with the most stringent standards regarding the establishment of Tier-1/2 permanent GNSS stations. Ergo, specific attention was given to sensor monumentation. Concordantly, two types of monuments were used: (a) the UNAVCO shallow-drilled braced quadpod and (b) a specifically-designed stainless-steel truss, which achieves submillimetric vibration at wind speeds up to 140km/h. Both monuments are anchored to solid bedrock.

CyCLOPS GNSS CORS Monument Type 1
CyCLOPS GNSS CORS Monument Type 2

Corner Reflectors represent very bright spots (persistent scatterers) in radar acquisitions that can be used to monitor deformation accurately, especially in rural areas. The design of the 12 SAR Corner Reflectors, installed at the PS sites, enables flexibility in their orientation in terms of elevation (-10º – 45º) and azimuth (0-359º) to support all current and future SAR missions. Moreover, their manufacturing quality and standards render them ideal for Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities. Consequently, to maintain performance at the highest possible level, their scattering condition is continuously monitored and assessed by the CyCLOPS team. Their monumentation is aligned with the GNSS monumentation requirements in the sense that all CRs are anchored to solid bedrock.

The Mobile Segment (MS)

The mobile segment consists of GNSS sensors, weather stations, tiltmeters, electronic corner reflectors (ECRs), tactical-grade Unmanned Airborne Systems (UAS), and laser scanners. All these diverse technologies can be deployed in areas of interest (AoI) to determine potential deformation and estimate ground displacements. The GNSS systems, weather stations, and tiltmeters are the same as in the case of the permanent segment. Their monumentation has been designed in such a way as to enable portability without compromising stability. To date, our mobile stations have been deployed throughout Cyprus to monitor and study critical areas of interest, such as the active landslide at the Pissouri village, the Chirokitia Neolithic Settlement, and the Vassiliko Cement open-pit mine. Examples of station deployments follow:

CyCLOPS GNSS Station in Pissouri Village
Pissouri Village
CyCLOPS GNSS Station at Vassiliko Open-pit Mine
Vassiliko Open-pit Mine
CyCLOPS GNSS Station at Chirokitia Neolithic Settlement
Chirokitia Neolithic Settlement

The Operation Center (OC)

The OC comprises the necessary IT infrastructure to achieve increased computing performance, adequate storage, and system availability. Therefore, a virtualized and highly compartmentalized IT architecture is installed at the Cyprus University of Technology Data Center. The overall system is designed with the utmost objective of the uninterruptible operation of all modules without internal interfe­rence or interdependence. Therefore, each operation (module) is assigned to dedicated virtual machines (VMs) or dockers. The software that handles the operation of the GNSS stations and the storage of the incoming information (GNSS, weather station, and tiltmeter observations) is Trimble® Pivot Platform (TPP). Through TPP, CyCLOPS also provides single-base and network RTK services. Concordantly, the unit will augment and improve the accuracy and reliability of the national GNSS infrastructure. Moreover, a separate post-processing engine was installed on a different module based on Bernese GNSS 5.4, customized and augmented by in-house developed software. Furthermore, The OC features a dedicated atmospheric monitoring service, which provides temporal information on critical measures, such as the Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPWV) and Total Electron Content (TEC), the I95 index, and the predicted ionospheric and geometric errors.

CyCLOPS Ionospheric Activity
Total Electron Content
CyCLOPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Surface Map
IPWV Surface


Integrated Space-based Monitoring of Geohazards

CyCLOPS will promote the study of geohazards by integrating the two most prominent Earth Observation technologies; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for country-wide estimation of ground displacement with high accuracy and resolution.

Enhance Geohazard Preparedness and Prevention

CyCLOPS will develop a novel Early Warning System by bridging Space-based and traditional geological and geotechnical input to provide both local and country-wide products.

Augment National GPS/GNSS Networks

CyCLOPS will augment the National GPS/GNSS networks in Cyprus and increase their accuracy and integrity.

Promote EU Research Infrastructures and Open Science

The permanent network of CyCLOPS will contribute data and data products to important EU Strategic Infrastructure incentives, such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).

Render Cyprus an EO Calibration and Validation Site

The novel co-located configuration of GPS/GNSS, Weather Stations and InSAR Corner Reflectors will render Cyprus a CalVal site for present and future EO space missions.

Synergies with local stakeholders

The installation of the infrastructure will entail active involvement and knowledge transfer for the Department of Geological Surveys (DGS) and the Department of Land and Surveys (DLS). The deployment of CyCLOPS will lead to meaningful and fruitful collaborations that will provide a significant output related to geodynamic/ geotechnics operations and national spatial data infrastructure.

Create links with local industry and SMEs

The local industry and SMEs active in the fields related to Earth sciences will benefit from CyCLOPS by means of targeted workshops and the improvement of positioning services.

Link with current ongoing projects

National partnerships will be further tightened by collaborating with existing on-going H2020 and JPI projects that are carried out in Cyprus.

Latest News

CyCLOPS Milestones

Road Map

December 2018

Beginning of Project

February 2019

CyCLOPS Kickoff Meeting

September 2020

Procurement of Corner Reflectors

May 2021

Procurement of IT Infrastructure

July 2021

Procurement of MPN Sensors

October 2021

Installation of MS in Case Study areas

CyCLOPS Key Researchers

Dr. Chris Danezis
Project Coordinator

Dr Chris Danezis research focuses on the fields of Geodesy, Ubiquitous and Collaborative Positioning and Navigation, GNSS Augmentations, Hydrographic Surveying, and Location-based Services (LBS).

Prof. Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis
Remote Sensing / Cultural Heritage

Prof. Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis is the CUT Vice Rector of Academic Affairs and Director of the Eratosthenes Research Center. He specializes in Remote Sensing focused on the Built Environment and Cultural Heritage applications.

Prof. Michael Eidener
Head of the DLR SAR Signal Processing Department

Prof. Michael Eineder is an expert in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). He has been with the German Aerospace Center (DLR) since 1990 where he currently heads the SAR Signal Processing Department of the Remote Sensing Technology Institute.

Dr. Ramon Brcic
Geodetic SAR

Dr. Ramon Brcic specializes in Geodetic SAR techniques.

Prof. Phaedon Kyriakidis
Professor, Vice-chair of the Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics

Dr Kyriakidis’s research interests include geostatistics, geocomputation, and geoinformatics, as well as their applications to geographic information science and systems, remote sensing, earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences, as well as public health and archaeology

Prof. Christopher Kotsakis
Professor of Geodesy and Surveying Engineering

Dr. Christopher Kotsakis is Professor of Geodesy in the School of Rural and Surveying Engineering at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Dr. Nicholas Kyriakides
Risk Assessment

Dr. Nicholas Kyriakides specializes in Risk assessment, Structural Engineering and Tectonics.

Dr. Elia Tantele
Risk Assesment

Dr. Elia Tantele specializes in: techniques of risk and reliability, multi-criteria optimization of maintenance, corrosion of reinforced concrete, life-cycle performance, structural health monitoring, and use of artificial intelligence algorithms-genetic algorithms

Dr. Athos Agapiou
RS & Cultural Heritage

Dr. Athos Agapiou is a specialist in the fields of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S.) for environmental applications and Cultural Heritage.

Dr. George Melillos
Postdoctoral Researcher

His research focuses on the Detection of Buried Structures and on Maritime Surveillance for security and safety in Cyprus using Remote Sensing, Space & GIS techniques.

Dr. Miltiadis Chatzinikos
GNSS Processing and Data Analysis

Dr. Miltiadis Chatzinikos specializes on GNSS data analysis, estimation of site velocities, modeling of crustal deformations and reference frame realization.

Dr. Christiana Papoutsa
Water Resources Management

Dr. Christiana Papoutsa specializes in water quality monitoring over surface water bodies (inland & coastal) using field spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques.

Dr. Michalis Christoforou
Research Fellow

Dr. Michalis Christoforou specializes in several areas of Agricultural Nematology (PENEK), Plant Pathology (Life Green Grapes), Ecology (CASCADE) and Agronomy (AGROINNOECO).

Dr. Kyriacos Themistokleous
Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry

Dr. Kyriakos Themistocleous specializes in aerial and satellite remote sensing, GIS, spectroscopy, sustainable development, geophysics, BIM, life cycle cost, cultural heritage and environmental sciences.

Dr. Rodanthi Mamouri
Atmospheric Modeling

Dr. Rodanthi Mamouri specializes in Aerosol/cloud interaction Air pollution Atmospheric physics Climate changes and LIDAR.

Dr. Iro Nisantzi
RS & Cultural Heritage

Dr. Iro Nisantzi specializes in Atmospheric physics Laser Remote sensing/ Lidar Earth observation / satellite Experimental Environmental physics Atmospheric / Air pollution.

Dr. Thomaida Polydorou
Structural Assessment

Dr. Thomaida Polydorou specializes in prestressed concrete structures, concrete engineering, experimental evaluation of materials, quality control testing,
evaluation of bond between concrete and various reinforcements Construction sustainability and circular economy.

Dr. Marios Tzouvaras
SAR Processing

Mr. Marios Tzouvaras focuses on Transport planning / Micro-simulation transport modeling, Intelligent Transportation Systems ,Pavement construction (Flexible/Rigid), Maritime Logistics Remote Sensing and GIS for environmental applications & natural hazards.

Mr. Andreas Christofe
Structural Design

Mr. Andreas Christofe focuses on Reinforced concrete behaviour, Concrete technology and special concrete mix – design, Remote Sensing, GIS, Geo-informatics for environmental applications and Natural Hazard Risk Management Infrastructures

Mr. Marios Nikolaidis
IT & Marine Geodesy

Mr. Marios Nikolaidis specializes in IT systems, Marine Geodesy, Physical and Operational Oceanography.

Mr. Dimitris Kakoullis
Geodesy & GIS

Mr. Dimitris Kakoullis specializes in Geodesy, GIS processing and Spatial Analysis.

Mrs. Kyriaki Fotiou
Remote Sensing , SAR Interferometry, Geodesy and GIS Applications.

Mrs. Kyriaki Fotiou specializes in Remote Sensing (SAR Satellite image processing), SAR Interferometry, Geodesy and GIS Applications.

Mrs. Marina Pekri
Satellite Altimetry, Radar, GIS, Remote Sensing

Mrs. Marina Pekri specializes in Satellite Altimetry, Radar, GIS, Remote Sensing.

Mr. Giorgos Ioannou
GIS & Computational infrastructure

Mr. George Ioannou is specialized in IT infrastructure and related technologies.


Get in Touch

30 Arch. Kyprianos Str.
P.O. BOX 50329
3036 Limassol, Cyprus

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